European Union is an international organization comprising 27 European countries and governing common economic, social, and security policies.
Economic sanctions are penalties levied against a country, its officials or private citizens, either as punishment or in an effort to provide disincentives for the targeted policies and actions. Economic sanctions can range from travel bans and export restrictions to trade embargos and asset seizures.
No-Fly Zone A no-fly zone (NFZ) is a territory or area established by a military power over which certain aircraft are not permitted to fly. Such zones are usually set up in an enemy power's territory during a conflict, and usually intend to prohibit the enemy's military aircraft from operating in the region. Military action is employed by the enforcing state and, depending on the terms of the NFZ, may include preemptive attacks to prevent potential violations, reactive force targeted at violating aircraft, or surveillance with no use of force.
The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication, or SWIFT, is the world's leading provider of secure financial messaging services. It facilitates trillions of dollars of cross-border payments between 11,000 financial institutions in more than 200 countries. Each member has its own SWIFT code.
Russian Oligarchs: Russian oligarchs are business oligarchs of the former Soviet republics who rapidly accumulated wealth in the 1990s via the Russian privatization that followed the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Today many are tied to Vladimir Putin, with assets of some oligarchs closely linked to the Russian president. While there is a relationship between Putin and the Russian oligarchs, the Russian leader still very much has control over them. While they don’t have much influence on Putin from above, the oligarchs can put pressure on him to change policy if their financial situation - and in turn Russia’s international trade - is put in peril.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 28 European countries and 2 North American countries. Established in the aftermath of World War II, the organization implements the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949
United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a center for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the world's largest and most familiar international organization.