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A background article on gentrification in American Cities.
Soure: Greenblatt, Alan. "Gentrification." CQ Researcher, 20 Feb. 2015
Background information on residential segregation in the United States.
Source: Jost, Kenneth. "Housing Discrimination." CQ Researcher, 6 Nov. 2015.
Second Great Migration
Includes background information on housing discrimination and white flight.
Source: Sonneborn, Liz. “The Second Great Migration.” The Great Black Migrations, Updated Edition, Chelsea House, 2017.
The Color of Law by
Publication Date: 2018
Richard Rothstein's The Color of Law offers "the most forceful argument ever published on how federal, state, and local governments gave rise to and reinforced neighborhood segregation" (W.J. Wilson). Exploding the myth of de facto segregation arising from private prejudice or the unintended consequences of economic forces, Rothstein describes how the American government systematically imposed residential segregation: with undisguised racial zoning; public housing that purposefully segregated previously mixed communities; subsidies for builders to create whites-only suburbs; tax exemptions for institutions that enforced segregation; and support for violent resistance to African Americans in white neighborhoods.
Spatializing Blackness: Architectures of Confinement and Black Masculinity in Chicago by
Publication Date: 2015
Over 277,000 African Americans migrated to Chicago between 1900 and 1940, an influx unsurpassed in any other northern city. From the start, carceral powers literally and figuratively created a prison-like environment to contain these African Americans within the so-called Black Belt on the city's South Side. A geographic study of race and gender, Spatializing Blackness casts light upon the ubiquitous--and ordinary--ways carceral power functions in places where African Americans live. Moving from the kitchenette to the prison cell, and mining forgotten facts from sources as diverse as maps and memoirs, Rashad Shabazz explores the myriad architectures of confinement, policing, surveillance, urban planning, and incarceration. In particular, he investigates how the ongoing carceral effort oriented and imbued black male bodies and gender performance from the Progressive Era to the present. The result is an essential interdisciplinary study that highlights the racialization of space, the role of containment in subordinating African Americans, the politics of mobility under conditions of alleged freedom, and the ways black men cope with--and resist--spacial containment. A timely response to the massive upswing in carceral forms within society, Spatializing Blackness examines how these mechanisms came to exist, why society aimed them against African Americans, and the consequences for black communities and black masculinity both historically and today.
Related Texts, Video, etc.
Lorraine Hansberry: Her Chicago law story
Article provides background regarding the childhood of Lorraine Hansberry including her father's fight against racial restrictive housing covenants in Hansberry v. Lee, 311 U.S. 32 (1940). Author: Lyonette Louis-Jacques Source: University of Chicago Law School
Ta-Nehisi Coates' "A Case for Reparations"
Includes discussion of racist housing policies such as redlining.
Written for The Atlantic June 2014 issue.
"Closing Down Covenants"
The article discusses the decision on the covenant mandating racial segregation in Greater Ville, St. Louis, Missouri in the U.S. 1948 Supreme Court case "Shelley v. Kraemer." The white St. Louis resident Fern Kraemer's lawsuit against the African Americans J.D. and Ethel Lee Shelley is discussed.
Source: MOSKOWITZ, DANIEL B. “Closing Down Covenants.” American History, vol. 53, no. 2, June 2018, pp. 22–23.
Race Power of An Illusion (Episode 3: The House We Live In)
The 3 part documentary, Race: The Power of an Illusion is available through the Library's subscription to Classroom Video on Demand. If accessing off-campus you will be prompted to enter your PEA credentials.
Harlem - Poetry in America episode (PBS)
“What happens to a dream deferred?” Langston Hughes’s question calls President Bill Clinton, pianist and composer Herbie Hancock, poet Sonia Sanchez, and students from the Harlem Children’s Zone to interpret Hughes’s most iconic poem,“Harlem.” Together with host Elisa New, the President and other guests, explore the poem’s rhythms and rhymes, interpret its images, and discuss its enduring call for justice.
Discrimination in Housing (3 minute segment from documentary Goin' to Chicago)
About Goin' to Chicago - "A group of longtime Chicago residents born in the Mississippi Delta returns to Greenville, Mississippi, for a reunion with family and friends. Participants talk about their lives and reasons for migrating north as part of The Great Migration. Archival footage of MIssissippi and Chicago is included."
Amanda Williams: Why I Turned Chicago's Abandoned Homes Into Art (TEDWomen 2018)
Amanda Williams shares her lifelong fascination with the complexity of color: from her experiences with race and redlining to her discovery of color theory to her work as a visual artist. Journey with Williams to Chicago's South Side and explore "Color(ed) Theory," a two-year art project in which she painted soon-to-be-demolished houses bold, monochromatic colors infused with local meaning -- catalyzing conversations and making the hidden visible.
The Color of Law - Richard Rothstein in conversation with Ta-Nehisi Coates
Richard Rothstein talked about his book The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America, in which he argues that local, state, and federal legislation has been responsible for America’s segregated cities. He spoke with author Ta-Nehisi Coates.
Note to teachers: The C-Span player allows you to create clips if you only wish to students view a certain segment of this video.
Segregated by Design
"‘Segregated By Design’ examines the forgotten history of how our federal, state and local governments unconstitutionally segregated every major metropolitan area in America through law and policy."
Digital Collections & Images
Primary Source Set for A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry
This primary source set from the Digital Public Library of America includes "An excerpt from a Chicago commission report on building new neighborhoods, 1943", "A 1967 political cartoon about war and residential integration," photos from the first stage production and more.